The Nobel Prizes in Chemistry
2016 Jean-Pierre Sauvage, Sir J. Fraser Stoddart and Bernard L. Feringa
"for the design and synthesis of molecular machines"
2015 Tomas Lindahl, Paul Modrich and Aziz Sancar
"for mechanistic studies of DNA repair"
2014 Eric Betzig, Stefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner
"for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"
2013 Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt and Arieh Warshel
"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"
2012 Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka
"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"
2011 Dan Shechtman
"for the discovery of quasicrystals"
2010 Richard F. Heck, Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki
"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"
2009 Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath
"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"
2008 Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien
"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"
2007 Gerhard Ertl
"for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"
2006 Roger D. Kornberg
"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"
2005 Yves Chauvin, Robert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock
"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"
2004 Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose
"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"
2003 Peter Agre
"for the discovery of water channels in cell membranes "
"for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"
2002 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002
"for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules"
John B. Fenn and Koichi Tanaka
"for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"
"for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"
2001 William S. Knowles and Ryoji Noyori
"for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"
K. Barry Sharpless
"for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"
2000 Alan J. Heeger, Alan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa
"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"
1999 Ahmed H. Zewail
"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"
1998 Walter Kohn
"for his development of the density-functional theory"
John A. Pople
"for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"
1997 Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker
"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"
Jens C. Skou
"for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"
1996 Robert F. Curl Jr., Sir Harold W. Kroto and Richard E. Smalley
"for their discovery of fullerenes"
1995 Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland
"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"
1994 George A. Olah
"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"
1993 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993
"for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry"
Kary B. Mullis
"for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method"
"for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"
1992 Rudolph A. Marcus
"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"
1991 Richard R. Ernst
"for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"
1990 Elias James Corey
"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"
1989 Sidney Altman and Thomas R. Cech
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"