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  [상식] 역대 노벨화학상 수상자 및 수상내용 (1989~2016)
  글쓴이 : 스테파노   고유ID : Stefano     날짜 : 16-12-27 14:40     조회 : 1496    

The Nobel Prizes in Chemistry

(1901~2016)

2016    Jean-Pierre SauvageSir J. Fraser Stoddart and Bernard L. Feringa

"for the design and synthesis of molecular machines"

2015     Tomas LindahlPaul Modrich and Aziz Sancar

"for mechanistic studies of DNA repair"

2014     Eric BetzigStefan W. Hell and William E. Moerner

"for the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy"

2013     Martin KarplusMichael Levitt and Arieh Warshel

"for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"

2012     Robert J. Lefkowitz and Brian K. Kobilka

"for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"

2011     Dan Shechtman

"for the discovery of quasicrystals"

2010     Richard F. HeckEi-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki

"for palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis"

2009     Venkatraman RamakrishnanThomas A. Steitz and Ada E. Yonath

"for studies of the structure and function of the ribosome"

2008     Osamu ShimomuraMartin Chalfie and Roger Y. Tsien

"for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP"

2007     Gerhard Ertl

"for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces"

2006     Roger D. Kornberg

"for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"

2005     Yves ChauvinRobert H. Grubbs and Richard R. Schrock

"for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

2004     Aaron CiechanoverAvram Hershko and Irwin Rose

"for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"

2003     Peter Agre

"for the discovery of water channels in cell membranes "

             Roderick MacKinnon

"for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels"

2002     The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2002

"for the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules"

John B. Fenn and Koichi Tanaka

"for their development of soft desorption ionisation methods for mass spectrometric analyses of biological macromolecules"

Kurt Wüthrich

"for his development of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for determining the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules in solution"

2001     William S. Knowles and Ryoji Noyori

"for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"

K. Barry Sharpless

"for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"

2000     Alan J. HeegerAlan G. MacDiarmid and Hideki Shirakawa

"for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"

1999     Ahmed H. Zewail

"for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"

1998     Walter Kohn

"for his development of the density-functional theory"

             John A. Pople

"for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"

1997     Paul D. Boyer and John E. Walker

"for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)"

             Jens C. Skou

"for the first discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+, K+ -ATPase"

1996     Robert F. Curl Jr.Sir Harold W. Kroto and Richard E. Smalley

"for their discovery of fullerenes"

1995     Paul J. CrutzenMario J. Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland

"for their work in atmospheric chemistry, particularly concerning the formation and decomposition of ozone"

1994     George A. Olah

"for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"

1993     The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1993

"for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry"

Kary B. Mullis

"for his invention of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method"

             Michael Smith

"for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies"

1992     Rudolph A. Marcus

"for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"

1991     Richard R. Ernst

"for his contributions to the development of the methodology of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"

1990     Elias James Corey

"for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"

1989     Sidney Altman and Thomas R. Cech

"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"


스테파노 Stefano   16-12-27 14:49
1988 Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber and Hartmut Michel
                        "for the determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"
1987 Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn and Charles J. Pedersen
                        "for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"
1986 Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee and John C. Polanyi
                        "for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"
1985 Herbert A. Hauptman and Jerome Karle
                    "for their outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal
                      structures"
1984 Robert Bruce Merrifield
                        "for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"
1983 Henry Taube
                      "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes"
1982 Aaron Klug
                      "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically
                        important nuclei acid-protein complexes"
1981 Kenichi Fukui and Roald Hoffmann
                      "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"
1980 Paul Berg
                    "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant
.                      -DNA"
1980 Walter Gilbert and Frederick Sanger
                    "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"
1979 Herbert C. Brown and Georg Wittig
                      "for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into
                        important reagents in organic synthesis"
1978 Peter D. Mitchell
                      "for his contribution to the understanding of biological energy transfer through the formulation of the
                        chemiosmotic theory"
1977 Ilya Prigogine
                      "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"
1976 William N. Lipscomb
                      "for his studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding"
1975 John Warcup Cornforth
                      "for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"
.        Vladimir Prelog
                      "for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"
1974 Paul J. Flory
                      "for his fundamental achievements, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of the
                        macromolecules"
1973 Ernst Otto Fischer and Geoffrey Wilkinson
                      "for their pioneering work, performed independently, on the chemistry of the organometallic, so called
                      sandwich compounds"
1972 Christian B. Anfinsen
                      "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the amino acid sequence
                        and the biologically active conformation"
.        Stanford Moore and William H. Stein
                      "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic
                        activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"
1971 Gerhard Herzberg
                      "for his contributions to the knowledge of electronic structure and geometry of molecules, particularly
                        free radicals"
1970 Luis F. Leloir
                      "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"
1969 Derek H. R. Barton and Odd Hassel
                      "for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation and its application in chemistry"
1968 Lars Onsager
                      "for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermo-
                        dynamics of irreversible processes"
1967 Manfred Eigen, Ronald George Wreyford Norrish and George Porter
                    "for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equilibrium by means of
                      very short pulses of energy"
1966 Robert S. Mulliken
                      "for his fundamental work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules by the
                        molecular orbital method"
1965 Robert Burns Woodward
                      "for his outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis"
1964 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin
                      "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"
1963 Karl Ziegler and Giulio Natta
                      "for their discoveries in the field of the chemistry and technology of high polymers"
1962 Max Ferdinand Perutz and John Cowdery Kendrew
                      "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"
1961 Melvin Calvin
                      "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"
1960 Willard Frank Libby
                      "for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination in archaeology, geology, geophysics, and other
                        branches of science"
1959 Jaroslav Heyrovsky
                      "for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"
1958 Frederick Sanger
                      "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially that of insulin"
1957 Lord (Alexander R.) Todd
                      "for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"
1956 Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood and Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov
                      "for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions"
1955 Vincent du Vigneaud
                      "for his work on biochemically important sulphur compounds, especially for the first synthesis of a poly-
                        peptide hormone"
1954 Linus Carl Pauling
                      "for his research into the nature of the chemical bond and its application to the elucidation of the structure
                        of complex substances"
1953 Hermann Staudinger
                      "for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"
1952 Archer John Porter Martin and Richard Laurence Millington Synge
                      "for their invention of partition chromatography"
1951 Edwin Mattison McMillan and Glenn Theodore Seaborg
                      "for their discoveries in the chemistry of the transuranium elements"
1950 Otto Paul Hermann Diels and Kurt Alder
                      "for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis"
1949 William Francis Giauque
                      "for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics, particularly concerning the behaviour
                        of substances at extremely low temperatures"
1948 Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius
                      "for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis, especially for his discoveries concerning
                        the complex nature of the serum proteins"
1947 Sir Robert Robinson
                      "for his investigations on plant products of biological importance, especially the alkaloids"
1946 James Batcheller Sumner
                      "for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"
John Howard Northrop and Wendell Meredith Stanley
                      "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"
1945 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen
                    "for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preser-
                      vation method"
1944 Otto Hahn
                      "for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"
1943 George de Hevesy
                      "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"
1940~42 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1941~42
                      No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and
                      with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
1939 Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt
                      "for his work on sex hormones"
.        Leopold Ruzicka
                      "for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"
1938 Richard Kuhn
                      "for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"
1937 Walter Norman Haworth
                      "for his investigations on carbohydrates and vitamin C"
.        Paul Karrer
                      "for his investigations on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"
1936 Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye
                      "for his contributions to our knowledge of molecular structure through his investigations on dipole
                      moments and on the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"
1935 Frédéric Joliot and Irène Joliot-Curie
                      "in recognition of their synthesis of new radioactive elements"
1934 Harold Clayton Urey
                      "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"
1933 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1933
                      No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and
                      with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.
1932 Irving Langmuir
                      "for his discoveries and investigations in surface chemistry"
1931 Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius
                    "in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods"
1930 Hans Fischer
                      "for his researches into the constitution of haemin and chlorophyll and especially for his synthesis of
                        haemin"
1929 Arthur Harden and Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin
                      "for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"
1928 Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus
                      "for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection
                      with the vitamins"
1927 Heinrich Otto Wieland
                      "for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances"
1926 The (Theodor) Svedberg
                      "for his work on disperse systems"
1925 Richard Adolf Zsigmondy
                      "for his demonstration of the heterogenous nature of colloid solutions and for the methods he used,
                        which have since become fundamental in modern colloid chemistry"
1924 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1924
                      No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize
                      section.
1923 Fritz Pregl
                      "for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"
1922 Francis William Aston
                      "for his discovery, by means of his mass spectrograph, of isotopes, in a large number of non-radioactive
                        elements, and for his enunciation of the whole-number rule"
1921 Frederick Soddy
                      "for his contributions to our knowledge of the chemistry of radioactive substances, and his investigations
                        into the origin and nature of isotopes"
1920 Walther Hermann Nernst
                      "in recognition of his work in thermochemistry"
1919 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1919
                      No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize
                      section.
1918 Fritz Haber
                      "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"
1916~17 The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1917
                      No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize
                      section.
1915 Richard Martin Willstätter
                      "for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"
1914 Theodore William Richards
                    "in recognition of his accurate determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of chemical elements"
1913 Alfred Werner
                      "in recognition of his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules by which he has thrown new light on
                      earlier investigations and opened up new fields of research especially in inorganic chemistry"
1912 Victor Grignard
                      "for the discovery of the so-called Grignard reagent, which in recent years has greatly advanced the
                      progress of organic chemistry"
.        Paul Sabatier
                      "for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds in the presence of finely disintegrated metals
                        whereby the progress of organic chemistry has been greatly advanced in recent years"
1911 Marie Curie, née Sklodowska
                      "in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by the discovery of the elements radium
                        and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of this remarkable
                        element"
1910 Otto Wallach
                      "in recognition of his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the
                      field of alicyclic compounds"
1909 Wilhelm Ostwald
                      "in recognition of his work on catalysis and for his investigations into the fundamental principles governing
                        chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"
1908 Ernest Rutherford
                    "for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"
1907 Eduard Buchner
                      "for his biochemical researches and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"
1906 Henri Moissan
                      "in recognition of the great services rendered by him in his investigation and isolation of the element
                        fluorine, and for the adoption in the service of science of the electric furnace called after him"
1905 Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer
                      "in recognition of his services in the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry,
                      through his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"
1904 Sir William Ramsay
                      "in recognition of his services in the discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air, and his determination
                        of their place in the periodic system"
1903 Svante August Arrhenius
                      "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered to the advancement of chemistry by his
                        electrolytic theory of dissociation"
1902 Hermann Emil Fischer
                      "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by his work on sugar and purine syntheses"
1901 Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff
                      "in recognition of the extraordinary services he has rendered by the discovery of the laws of chemica
                      dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"                                                                                                                ~fine-
   

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